Declension of Russian adjectives

Like nouns Russian adjectives have 3 types of declension. The table below sums up the differences we need to know to tell one from the other:


Declension of adjectives
1st declension 2nd declension 3rd declension
qualitative & relative adjectives adjectives with suffix that sounds like "j" : волчий зуб (a wolf's tooth) possesive with suffixes -ин-,-ов-/-ев-

 


1st declension

Depending on the last consonant of the stem of adjective there could be 2 types of 1st declension :hard (e.g. круглый) and soft (дальний). In the forms of different cases except for the Accusative caseadjectives of masculine and feminine gender have the same endings. In the Accusative case it depends on animation/inanimationand and gender of the noun that the adjective modifies. Adjectives with stems ending with [к], [г], [х] like низкий, долгий, тихий in some forms correspond to the soft or hard type: мягкий, мягкого. In the plural they are soft.

 

Singular Plural
Case Hard type
Soft type
Nomin.

классн-ый, классн-ое

классн-ая крут-ой, крут-ое крут-ая дальн-ий, дальн-ее дальн-яя классн-ые, дальн-ие
Genetive классн-ого классн-ой крут-ого крут-ой дальн-его дальн-ей классн-ых, дальн-их
Dative классн-ому классн-ой крут-ому крут-ой дальн-ему дальн-ей классн-им, дальн-им
Accus. same as Nom. or Gen. классн-ую same as Nom. or Gen. крут-ую same as Nom. or Gen. дальн-юю классн-ых, дальн-их
Instrum. классн-ым классн-ой(ою) крут-ым

крут-ой

(ою)

дальн-им дальн-ей (ею) классн-ыми, дальн-ими
Preposit.

(о) классн-ом

(о) классн-ой (о) крут-ом (о) крут-ой (о) дальн-ем (о) дальн-ей (о) классн-ых, дальн-их

 

2nd declension

Adjectives of 2nd declention have a stem that ends with [-j-] sound (soft type of declension). Bear in mind, that in adjectives like лисий, медвежий (as opposed to свежий, синий) -ий is NOT an ending but a suffix. Endings in the Accusative might depend on animation/inanimation of the noun they modify.

 

Case Singular Plural
Nominative лисий[], лись[j]-е лись[j]-я лись[j]-и
Genetive лись[j]-его лись[j]-ей лись[j]-их
Dative лись[j]-ему лись[j]-ей лись[j]-им
Accusative лисий, лисий[]-е, лись[j]-его лись[j]-ю лись[j]-и, лись[j]-их
Instrumental лись[j]-им лись[j]-ей лись[j]-ими
Prepositional о лись[j]-ем о лись[j]-ей о лись[j]-их

 

3rd declension

3rd declention adjectives have endings that are typical of nouns and adjectives of different declensions.Forms in the Accusative might depend on animation/inanimation of the noun they modify. Adjectives with non-stressed suffixes -ин/-ын can have variants in the Genetive and Dative cases: Катина and Катиного, Катину and Катиному. It is more common to say the full form though: к папину папиному креслу.

 

Case Singular Plural
Nominative папин[] отцов[] папин-ы отцов-ы
Genetive папин-а отцов-а папин-ых отцов-ых
Dative папин-у отцов-у папин-ым отцов-ым
Accusative same as in Nominative or Genetive
Instrumental папин-ым отцов-ым папин-ыми отцов-ыми
Prepositional о папин-ом об отцов-ом о папин-ых об отцов-ых

 

 

 

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